United Nations


International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

United Nations CCPR/C/BLZ/CO/1 Distr.: General 26 April 2013 Human Rights Committee Concluding observations on Belize in the absence of a report, adopted by the Committee at its 107th session (11 – 28 March 2013) 1. In the absence of a report by the Stateparty, the Human Rights Committee considered the situation of civil and political rights under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in Belize at its 2960th meeting (CCPR/C/SR. 2960), held in a public session on 15 March 2013. In accordance with rule 70, paragraph 1, of the Committee’s rules of procedure, the failure of a State […]


Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty)

The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance was an agreement signed in 1947 in Rio de Janeiro among many countries of the Americas. The central principle contained in its articles is that an attack against one is to be considered an attack against them all; this was known as the “hemispheric defense” doctrine.


A Crisis in Guatemala, Abetted by the U.N.

In the struggle to defeat transnational crime in Central America, the U.S. is financing a United Nations prosecutorial body in Guatemala. Yet these U.N. prosecutors are thumbing their noses at the rule of law and seem to be using their power to politicize the Guatemalan judiciary. This is dividing and destabilizing a pivotal democracy in the region. The fragile Guatemalan state is in the crosshairs of Venezuelan dictator Nicolás Maduro and Cuba’s Gen. Raúl Castro. If their allies seize control of Mexico’s southern neighbor via its institutions, as Daniel Ortega has done in Nicaragua, it will have implications for Mexican […]


Tegucigalpa Protocol

[TRANSLATION — TRADUCTION] TEGUCIGALPA PROTOCOL1 TO THE CHARTER OF THE ORGANIZATION OF CENTRAL AMERICAN STATES (ODECA)4 The Presidents of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama: Whereas: It is necessary to revise the legal framework of the Organization of Central American States (OCAS), adapting it to current realities and needs, in order to secure the effective attainment of Central American integration; and Such adaptation must be geared towards the establishment and consolidation of the Central American Integration System, which provide follow up in respect of all decisions adopted at Meetings of Presidents and coordinate their implementation; Accordingly: Decide […]


Is the ICJ Biased?

by Eric A. Posner and Miguel F. P. de Figueiredo ERIC A. POSNER is Kirkland and Ellis Professor of Law, University of Chicago. MIGUEL F. P. DE FIGUEIREDO is a Ph.D. student in political science at the University of California at Berkeley. We thank Fay Booker, Jacob Cogan, Sean Farhang, Andrew Guzman, Larry Helfer, Richard Hynes, Matt Jarvis, Anup Malani, Andrew Martin, Simeon Nichter, Abdul Noury, Keith Smith, Duncan Snidal, Laura Stoker, Erik Voeten, Greg Wawro, John Yoo; participants at seminars at the University of Chicago, Washington University in St. Louis, Columbia University, and the University of California, Berkeley, Law […]


Background and Study of the Special Agreement to the ICJ

BACKGROUND AND STUDY OF THE SPECIAL AGREEMENT BETWEEN GUATEMALA AND BELIZE TO SUBMIT GUATEMALA’S TERRITORIAL, INSULAR AND MARITIME CLAIM TO THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE. By Gustavo Adolfo Orellana Portillo To the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Guatemala, especially the Belize Commission. To my parents Oscar Rigoberto Orellana Cordón (+) Octavila Portillo Chacón de Orellana (+) To my wife Lilián Lisseth Lacs Palomo de Orellana To my children Oscar Gustavo and Laura Paulina PROLOGUE On December 8, 2008, the Special Agreement between Guatemala and Belize to submit Guatemala’s territorial, insular and maritime differendum to the International Court of Justice was […]


Human Rights in Belize – Rights of the Child

RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY [without reference to a Main Committee (A/54/L.84)] 54/263. Optional protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography H.E. Mr. Said Musa Prime Minister of Belize The General Assembly, Recalling all its previous resolutions on the rights of the child, in particular its resolution 54/149 of 17 December 1999, in which it strongly supported the work of the open-ended inter-sessional working groups and urged them to finalize their work before the tenth anniversary of […]


As the World Sleeps Belize keeps getting destroyed, terrorized and invaded

As the world sleeps, Belize is being systematically destroyed and invaded both from within and without. For decades Guatemala has remained head strong claiming that it owns Belize despite the world noting that Belize is an independent nation and it’s people have full rights to independence. At the African, Caribbean and Pacific States and the European Community (ACP-EU) meeting in Abuja Nigeria on March 2000 the following was noted: United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 35/20 of 11 November 1980, which reaffirmed the inalienable right of the people of Belize to self-determination, independence and territorial integrity and called on all […]


Maya Land Rights & Governance

Cristina Coc and Pabla Miss from the Maya Leaders Association Toledo Alcaldes Association discuss their advocacy for Maya land rights in Belize. Maya Land Rights: the Conejo and Santa Cruz Lawsuits Contact: Nancy Stanley, Associate Director for External Relations The University of Arizona James E. Rogers College of Law 520-621-8430 (office) 520-979-0142 (cell) James Anaya 520-626-6341 (office) UA LAW PROFESSOR AND STUDENTS HELP SECURE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS FOR THE MAYA COMMUNITIES OF BELIZE In a potentially precedent-setting step with far-reaching implications, the Maya indigenous villages of Conejo and Santa Cruz will soon file claims in the Supreme Court of Belize, asserting […]


Resilient Communities with Cristina Coc

Cristina Coc discusses issues with Alec Baldwin and Aaron Sherinian at Earth To Paris. Giving voice on an international platform to indigenous peoples of Belize as they talk about climate change and its solutions. “The most important thing is to learn from indigenous and forest communities on how they do sustainable development – Christina Coc” Governments have the responsibility to set the framework for action … but the energy and innovation really happens at the local and regional level. Related articles Climate warriors, renewables champions, carbon absorbers or not? (earthtimes.org) Tackling Climate Change in the Caribbean: Natural Solutions to a […]


The Belize-Guatemala Conundrum

By Nick Pollard Jr. Spain and Great Britain left behind in Central America an unresolved Boundary Dispute between Guatemala and Belize for which there is absolutely no sign of a settlement almost 150 years later after various negotiations have failed even with the immediate arbitration of the O.A.S. Will the dispute be settled in the unforeseeable future by the ICJ or will the Security Council of the United Nations be forced to intervene? Thursday, 9 May 2013 GUATEMALA CANNOT BE TRUSTED IN FUTURE NEGOTIATIONS TO SETTLE THE OLD ANGLO-GUATEMALAN BORDER DISPUTE. Surprisingly, many Belizeans were not taken aback by Guatemala’s […]