Central America


Tegucigalpa Protocol

[TRANSLATION — TRADUCTION] TEGUCIGALPA PROTOCOL(1)Came into force on 23 July 1992, i.e., eight days after the date on which the majority of the signatory States to the above-mentioned Charter had deposited their instrument of ratification with the Government of El Salvador, in accordance with article 36: TO THE CHARTER OF THE ORGANIZATION OF CENTRAL AMERICAN STATES (ODECA)(4)See p. 382 of this volume. The Presidents of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama: Whereas: It is necessary to revise the legal framework of the Organization of Central American States (OCAS), adapting it to current realities and needs, in order […]


Background and Study of the Special Agreement to the ICJ

BACKGROUND AND STUDY OF THE SPECIAL AGREEMENT BETWEEN GUATEMALA AND BELIZE TO SUBMIT GUATEMALA’S TERRITORIAL, INSULAR AND MARITIME CLAIM TO THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE. By Gustavo Adolfo Orellana Portillo To the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Guatemala, especially the Belize Commission. To my parents Oscar Rigoberto Orellana Cordón (+) Octavila Portillo Chacón de Orellana (+) To my wife Lilián Lisseth Lacs Palomo de Orellana To my children Oscar Gustavo and Laura Paulina PROLOGUE On December 8, 2008, the Special Agreement between Guatemala and Belize to submit Guatemala’s territorial, insular and maritime differendum to the International Court of Justice was […]


Shadow players: ecotourism development, corruption and state politics in Belize

As published: Third World Quarterly, Vol 21, No 3, pp 549–565, 2000 by Rosaleen Duffy Rosaleen Duffy is at the Department of Politics and International Relations, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YL, UK. Abstract This article examines the way that developing societies have been increasingly incorporated into global networks, and the effect that this has had on the states themselves. The notion of a shadow state is used here to inform the ways that the state has been modified by the global networks represented by ecotourism development on the one hand and drug trafficking (and associated offshore banking sectors) on the […]


Gap Analysis Report: Citizen Security in Belize

Prepared for the Innovation in Citizen Services Division by Jennifer Peirce This paper presents updated information about crime and violence in Belize, and about current and recent initiatives that address these issues, with an emphasis on youth and on Southside Belize City. The findings complement the 2013 IDB Technical Note on citizen security in Belize and the analysis of the completed Community Action for Public Safety Program (CAPS). The report reviews factors contributing to crime and violence in Belize, and then identifies opportunities to consolidate progress and gaps in services. It makes recommendations for future programs, including a potential second […]


FBI Shuts Down Belize-Mexico Border

mayo 11, 2017 Chetumal, 11 de mayo. – Cierran el puente internacional Chactemal que comunica a México y Belice, así como el antiguo acceso, debido a operativos binacionales que se vienen realizando en la Zona Libre de esta nación caribeña, así como en las 14 comunidades de la ribera del Río Hondo para la búsqueda de los supuestos homicidas del exmarine de Estados Unidos, Drew Thomas DeVoursney de 36 años, así como de su novia la canadiense Francesca Matus, de 52 años de edad. De acuerdo a datos recabados de manera sorpresiva ,un helicóptero de la Policía Federal División Caminos, […]


How America plans to pay for their wall

This controversial issue is being discussed by just about everyone but nobody actually discusses the actual funding of it. It seems as per this bill that it will be paid by many countries.Basically, brace yourself because remittances will be slowing or stopping for a lot of countries and people including Belize. The Bill: This Act may be cited as the “Border Wall Funding Act of 2017”. Introduced in House (03/30/2017) [Congressional Bills 115th Congress] [From the U.S. Government Publishing Office] [H.R. 1813 Introduced in House (IH)] 115th CONGRESS 1st Session H. R. 1813 To amend the Electronic Fund Transfer Act […]


Central America, Still Caught Up in the Arms Race

By Lina Barrantes Castegnaro In this column, Lina Barrantes Castegnaro, executive director of the Arias Foundation for Peace and Human Progress, denounces the arms race in Central America and calls for the implementation of the Costa Rica Consensus, which urges rich countries to increase development aid to countries that cut military spending. SAN JOSE, May 25 2016 (IPS) – The recent announcement of the Nicaraguan government’s 80-million-dollar purchase of 50 Russian tanks caught the attention of the press in Latin America and caused alarm in the international community. The purchase, not an isolated acquisition, is part of an arms race […]


As the World Sleeps Belize keeps getting destroyed, terrorized and invaded

As the world sleeps, Belize is being systematically destroyed and invaded both from within and without. For decades Guatemala has remained head strong claiming that it owns Belize despite the world noting that Belize is an independent nation and it’s people have full rights to independence. At the African, Caribbean and Pacific States and the European Community (ACP-EU) meeting in Abuja Nigeria on March 2000 the following was noted: United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 35/20 of 11 November 1980, which reaffirmed the inalienable right of the people of Belize to self-determination, independence and territorial integrity and called on all […]


The struggle for Maya land, oil, and gold

by Robin Llewellyn 11 July 2012 After two very recent attacks on Maya community leaders in Guatemala, the challenges faced by the lawyers applying domestic law and international indigenous rights legislation to these conflicts are revealing, as legal concepts are reinterpreted by governments in indigenous communities across the Maya region of Central America. On the night of 12 June two men broke into the home of José Tavico Tzunun in Santa Cruz del Qiché, Western Guatemala, and murdered him. Tzunun was a member of the K’iche’ Peoples Council in Defense of Life, Mother Nature, Earth, and Indigenous Territory. He helped […]


Case study of Agricultural Policies in Belize 2

REPORT PREPARED FOR THE CARICOM SECRETARIAT CONSULTING TEAM (CORE): SINGH, R.H. (PH.D.) RANKINE, L.B. (PH.D.) SEEPERSAD, G. (M.SC.) THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND EXTENSION THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES ST. AUGUSTINE, TRINIDAD W.I. DECEMBER 2005 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Purpose & Scope of the Review This Report provides an analytical review of the major policy provisions for the agricultural sector in Belize. The focus is on the appropriateness of the policy mix in facilitating transformation of the sector into one characterized by higher levels of efficiency and competitiveness. The review is conducted within the context of the challenges confronting agriculture […]


Now the Sarstoon has become Guatemala’s 2

by Thérèse Belisle Nweke … A Belizean in Nigeria on the Annexation of the Sarstoon ” All your friends are false; all your enemies are real” – Mexican proverb The subterfuge, excuses and unimpressive attempts to conceal the truth have ended. The Sarstoon is no longer Belize’s, but is now a part of the Republic of Guatemala. This, the redoubtable Wil Maheia recently proved when as head of the Belize Territorial Volunteers (BTV), he and 19 other Belizeans were arbitrarily prevented by armed Guatemalan military personnel from entering the Sarstoon river, on their way to the Gracias a Dios border […]


Maya Land Rights & Governance

Cristina Coc and Pabla Miss from the Maya Leaders Association Toledo Alcaldes Association discuss their advocacy for Maya land rights in Belize. Maya Land Rights: the Conejo and Santa Cruz Lawsuits Contact: Nancy Stanley, Associate Director for External Relations The University of Arizona James E. Rogers College of Law 520-621-8430 (office) 520-979-0142 (cell) James Anaya 520-626-6341 (office) UA LAW PROFESSOR AND STUDENTS HELP SECURE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS FOR THE MAYA COMMUNITIES OF BELIZE In a potentially precedent-setting step with far-reaching implications, the Maya indigenous villages of Conejo and Santa Cruz will soon file claims in the Supreme Court of Belize, asserting […]