Central America


Dallas-Clarendon Treaty   Recently updated !

Treaty between Her Majesty and the United States of America, respecting Central America; with three Separate Articles thereunto annexed. Signed at London, October 17, 1856 [ Ratifications exchanged at London ] Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the United States of America, being desirous to settle in a friendly manner the questions which have come into discussion between them relative to Central America, have resolved to conclude a Treaty for that purpose, and have named as their respective Plenipotentiaries, that is to say: Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of […]


The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty   Recently updated !

British-American Diplomacy Convention Between the United States of America and Her Britannic Majesty THE United States of America and her Britannic Majesty, being desirous of consolidating the relations of amity which so happily subsist between them, by setting forth and fixing in a convention their views and intentions with reference to any means of communication by ship canal, which may be constructed between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, by the way of the River San Juan de Nicaragua, and either or both of the lakes of Nicaragua or Managua, to any port or place on the Pacific Ocean: the President […]


International Borders Origin Dates

This was originally posted on Reddit by PisseGuri82 who I’d like to thank for bringing our border date to international light. So, I was recently in a discussion about what is the oldest border. That’s not a hard question in itself (it’s Andorra). But what about number two? And three? And what’s the newest? And what regions, or which continent, have generally older or newer borders? I figured this had to be available information somehow. I was partly correct. Researching this has been painstaking, because a lot of the sources are fuzzy. Even the facts are fuzzy, different cultures have […]


Belize Sustainable Development Review 2017

Belize National Sustainable Development Report Ministry of Forestry, Fisheries, and Sustainable Development, Belize United Nations Department of Social and Economic Affairs (UNDESA) United Nations Development Program (UNDP) List of Acronyms CARICOM – Caribbean Community CBD – Convention on Biological Diversity CDB – Caribbean Development Bank CHM – Clearing House Mechanism CI – Conservation International CoP – Conference of the Parties (to the CBD) DOE – Department of the Environment EEZ – Exclusive Economic Zoning EIA – Environmental Impact Assessment GEF – Global Environment Facility GMO – Genetically Modified Organisms GOB – Government of Belize IDB – Inter – American Development […]


A Crisis in Guatemala, Abetted by the U.N.

In the struggle to defeat transnational crime in Central America, the U.S. is financing a United Nations prosecutorial body in Guatemala. Yet these U.N. prosecutors are thumbing their noses at the rule of law and seem to be using their power to politicize the Guatemalan judiciary. This is dividing and destabilizing a pivotal democracy in the region. The fragile Guatemalan state is in the crosshairs of Venezuelan dictator Nicolás Maduro and Cuba’s Gen. Raúl Castro. If their allies seize control of Mexico’s southern neighbor via its institutions, as Daniel Ortega has done in Nicaragua, it will have implications for Mexican […]


Tegucigalpa Protocol

[TRANSLATION — TRADUCTION] TEGUCIGALPA PROTOCOL(1)Came into force on 23 July 1992, i.e., eight days after the date on which the majority of the signatory States to the above-mentioned Charter had deposited their instrument of ratification with the Government of El Salvador, in accordance with article 36: TO THE CHARTER OF THE ORGANIZATION OF CENTRAL AMERICAN STATES (ODECA)(4)See p. 382 of this volume. The Presidents of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama: Whereas: It is necessary to revise the legal framework of the Organization of Central American States (OCAS), adapting it to current realities and needs, in order […]


Background and Study of the Special Agreement to the ICJ

BACKGROUND AND STUDY OF THE SPECIAL AGREEMENT BETWEEN GUATEMALA AND BELIZE TO SUBMIT GUATEMALA’S TERRITORIAL, INSULAR AND MARITIME CLAIM TO THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE. By Gustavo Adolfo Orellana Portillo To the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Guatemala, especially the Belize Commission. To my parents Oscar Rigoberto Orellana Cordón (+) Octavila Portillo Chacón de Orellana (+) To my wife Lilián Lisseth Lacs Palomo de Orellana To my children Oscar Gustavo and Laura Paulina PROLOGUE On December 8, 2008, the Special Agreement between Guatemala and Belize to submit Guatemala’s territorial, insular and maritime differendum to the International Court of Justice was […]


Shadow players: ecotourism development, corruption and state politics in Belize

As published: Third World Quarterly, Vol 21, No 3, pp 549–565, 2000 by Rosaleen Duffy Rosaleen Duffy is at the Department of Politics and International Relations, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YL, UK. Abstract This article examines the way that developing societies have been increasingly incorporated into global networks, and the effect that this has had on the states themselves. The notion of a shadow state is used here to inform the ways that the state has been modified by the global networks represented by ecotourism development on the one hand and drug trafficking (and associated offshore banking sectors) on the […]


Gap Analysis Report: Citizen Security in Belize

Prepared for the Innovation in Citizen Services Division by Jennifer Peirce This paper presents updated information about crime and violence in Belize, and about current and recent initiatives that address these issues, with an emphasis on youth and on Southside Belize City. The findings complement the 2013 IDB Technical Note on citizen security in Belize and the analysis of the completed Community Action for Public Safety Program (CAPS). The report reviews factors contributing to crime and violence in Belize, and then identifies opportunities to consolidate progress and gaps in services. It makes recommendations for future programs, including a potential second […]


FBI Shuts Down Belize-Mexico Border

mayo 11, 2017 Chetumal, 11 de mayo. – Cierran el puente internacional Chactemal que comunica a México y Belice, así como el antiguo acceso, debido a operativos binacionales que se vienen realizando en la Zona Libre de esta nación caribeña, así como en las 14 comunidades de la ribera del Río Hondo para la búsqueda de los supuestos homicidas del exmarine de Estados Unidos, Drew Thomas DeVoursney de 36 años, así como de su novia la canadiense Francesca Matus, de 52 años de edad. De acuerdo a datos recabados de manera sorpresiva ,un helicóptero de la Policía Federal División Caminos, […]


How America plans to pay for their wall

This controversial issue is being discussed by just about everyone but nobody actually discusses the actual funding of it. It seems as per this bill that it will be paid by many countries.Basically, brace yourself because remittances will be slowing or stopping for a lot of countries and people including Belize. The Bill: This Act may be cited as the “Border Wall Funding Act of 2017”. Introduced in House (03/30/2017) [Congressional Bills 115th Congress] [From the U.S. Government Publishing Office] [H.R. 1813 Introduced in House (IH)] 115th CONGRESS 1st Session H. R. 1813 To amend the Electronic Fund Transfer Act […]


Central America, Still Caught Up in the Arms Race

By Lina Barrantes Castegnaro In this column, Lina Barrantes Castegnaro, executive director of the Arias Foundation for Peace and Human Progress, denounces the arms race in Central America and calls for the implementation of the Costa Rica Consensus, which urges rich countries to increase development aid to countries that cut military spending. SAN JOSE, May 25 2016 (IPS) – The recent announcement of the Nicaraguan government’s 80-million-dollar purchase of 50 Russian tanks caught the attention of the press in Latin America and caused alarm in the international community. The purchase, not an isolated acquisition, is part of an arms race […]