Britain


From resistance to rebellion

Asian and Afro-Caribbean struggles in Britain This article is taken from the author’s book, Race, Class and the State, to be published next spring by Pluto Press. Copyright © 2015 by Institute of Race Relations On 25 June 1940 Udham Singh was hanged. At a meeting of the Royal Asiatic Society and the East India Association at Caxton Hall, Lon- don, he had shot dead Sir Michael O’Dwyer, who (as the Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab) had presided over the massacre of unarmed peasants and workers at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, in 1919. Udham was a skilled electrician, an active trade […]


Attention Government and People of Belize 1

By:Joaquin Magaña Sr. What Everyone, Especially Mr. Elrington And GOB Should Know: That History Discards The Unfounded And Void Guatemalan Claim Over Belize!!! In 1838 – 1839 the United Provinces of Central America broke up giving rise to the new countries of Central America. Guatemala Claimed that Belize was administered by Spain as part of the Captaincy of Guatemala and that they had inherited this sovereignty, as a result of the breakup of the federation. They say Belize was passed to Guatemala, since Belize had been considered part of Peten or Verapaz region of Guatemala. The fact is that there […]


UnHappy Birthday Belize

I wanted to wait for the festivities to simmer down before I put my thoughts out to my fellow Belizeans. I do not know how you will receive my speech or how it will be scrutinized, but these are my heartfelt convictions. I heard some of the speeches and for the most part heard a lot of pretty flowers, shiny gems and smelt nice perfume that all masked the reality that our nation faces today, 33 years and a couple days old. I won’t go into the pretties too much, you know that is not me. My idea is to […]


UK ordered destruction of ‘embarrassing’ colonial papers

Britain systematically destroyed documents in colonies that were about to gain independence, declassified Foreign Office files reveal. ‘Operation Legacy’ saw sensitive documents secretly burnt or dumped to cover up traces of British activities. The latest National Archives publication made from a collection of 8,800 colonial-era files held by the Foreign Office for decades revealed deliberate document elimination by British authorities in former colonies. The secret program dubbed ‘Operation Legacy’ was in force throughout the 1950s and 1960s, in at least 23 countries and territories under British rule that eventually gained independence after WWII. Among others these countries included: Belize, British […]


Webster Proposal

Negotiations between the United Kingdom and Guatemala in search of a solution to Guatemala’s claim to Belize were bilateral negotiations until 1962. It was a significant historical moment because in that year delegates from Belize were permitted for the first time to participate in the Anglo-Guatemalan negotiations which took place in San Juan, Puerto Rico with the U.K. and Guatemala as principals. Belize had not yet achieved self-government and so the delegates were members of the Executive Council which comprised Hon. George Price, who later became Prime Minister of Belize, Mr. Albert Cattouse and Hon. Louis Sylvestre, along with Hon. […]


Constitutional Conference For Belize: Is This an Idea Whose Time Has Come? 3

by: Hubert Pipersburgh Should the people of Belize call for a Constitutional Conference an event to bring together the best Belizean minds possible that can fashion a document that represents our struggles while crafting a new direction for the 21st century and will have built in mechanism for the participation of the people? This is a legitimate public policy question. As the debate rages on in Belize on the merits or demerits of amending the current Constitution to bring into effect preventative detention and government control over key utilities, we have seen both sides making passionate arguments for their respective […]


INTERNATIONALIZATION CAMPAIGN 1

Guatemala refused to resume negotiations until Britain reduced its troop strength in Belize. It was not until 1975, after Belize’s election in late 1974 that the talks resumed. However, Guatemala’s position seemed to have hardened since they were demanding the cession of the southern quarter of Belize in return for recognizing the independence of the rest. This prompted the Belize government to embark on a radically new approach in which it would have to gain the support of the world to its independence. Therefore, the objectives of its internationalisation campaign were: To gain the support of as many nations as […]


Guatemala's Tactics to confuse Belizeans 1

Reading the Prensa Libre, I came across this article, it seems to me it’s more about confusing people than anything else.  It’s a lengthy article but worth the time so you can understand what it is we are getting into. The Spanish Version Preocupa a Guatemala traba a referendo con Belice Autoridades guatemaltecas expresaron su preocupación debido a que Belice modificó su legislación sobre referendos  y puso un mínimo de 60 por ciento de votantes registrados para que la consulta popular de octubre próximo sea válida. CIUDAD DE GUATEMALA – El Gobierno y la Organización de los Estados Americanos (OEA)  […]


Sacrifice at Pearl Harbor

This BBC documentary details United States and Britain knew beforehand of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Much more evidence has come to light since the 1989 – when this film was put together. For nearly 50 years, the world has believed President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s declaration that the Pearl Harbor attack was a completely unexpected assault on a neutral nation. Sacrifice at Pearl Harbor tells another, hidden story – using actual recording of intercepted diplomatic communications, declassified government documents, archival footage and interviews with diplomats and spies from around the world. We now know that intelligence operatives from the US and […]


Decolonization and the Border Dispute with Guatemala 1

British Honduras faced two obstacles to independence: British reluctance until the early 1960s to allow citizens to govern themselves, and Guatemala’s complete intransigence over its long- standing claim to the entire territory (Guatemala had repeatedly threatened to use force to take over British Honduras). By 1961, Britain was willing to let the colony become independent. From 1964 Britain controlled only defense, foreign affairs, internal security, and the terms and conditions of the public service. On June 1, 1973, the colony’s name was changed to Belize in anticipation of independence. After 1975 Britain allowed the colonial government to internationalize its case […]


BELIZE (British Honduras)-GUATEMALA BOUNDARY

International Boundary Study No. 8 –July 21, 1961 Belize (British Honduras) – Guatemala Boundary The Geographer Office of the Geographer Bureau of Intelligence and Research BACKGROUND According to British sources, occupation by Europeans of the coastal area of present-day British Honduras was begun in 1638 by shipwrecked English sailors; the discovery of valuable logwood, used in making dyes, and mahogany led in 1662 to the creation of an establishment. Differing opinions as to the provisions of the Treaty of Madrid, July 18, 1670, resulted in frequent fighting between the British settlers and the Spanish authorities. The Treaty of Paris, February […]


Belize Timeline 2

1500 BC – 800 AD Maya civilization dominated Belize 1100’s – 1400’s (1123) Yucatec Maya overthrew the Itza-Maya (1487) Aztec sent spies to Belize for trade and political information 1500’s (1508) First Spanish excursions occurred, Maya resisted Spanish attempts to control (1511) Geronimo de Aguilar first Spaniard to arrive, settled at Chetumal Bay (1544) Spanish took over northern Belize (1546) Massive uprising threw Spanish out of Belize (1547) Spanish cousins, the Pechecos, and friends received Spanish Grant to Belize; tortured, killed villagers, burned homes (1567) Spanish from Yucatan organized conquest, destroyed anything related to Mayan culture (1568) Juan de Garzon’s forces destroyed Mayan communities in Belize as far south […]