Politics


Tegucigalpa Protocol

[TRANSLATION — TRADUCTION] TEGUCIGALPA PROTOCOL(1)Came into force on 23 July 1992, i.e., eight days after the date on which the majority of the signatory States to the above-mentioned Charter had deposited their instrument of ratification with the Government of El Salvador, in accordance with article 36: TO THE CHARTER OF THE ORGANIZATION OF CENTRAL AMERICAN STATES (ODECA)(4)See p. 382 of this volume. The Presidents of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama: Whereas: It is necessary to revise the legal framework of the Organization of Central American States (OCAS), adapting it to current realities and needs, in order […]


Is the ICJ Biased?

by Eric A. Posner and Miguel F. P. de Figueiredo ERIC A. POSNER is Kirkland and Ellis Professor of Law, University of Chicago. MIGUEL F. P. DE FIGUEIREDO is a Ph.D. student in political science at the University of California at Berkeley. We thank Fay Booker, Jacob Cogan, Sean Farhang, Andrew Guzman, Larry Helfer, Richard Hynes, Matt Jarvis, Anup Malani, Andrew Martin, Simeon Nichter, Abdul Noury, Keith Smith, Duncan Snidal, Laura Stoker, Erik Voeten, Greg Wawro, John Yoo; participants at seminars at the University of Chicago, Washington University in St. Louis, Columbia University, and the University of California, Berkeley, Law […]


Background and Study of the Special Agreement to the ICJ

BACKGROUND AND STUDY OF THE SPECIAL AGREEMENT BETWEEN GUATEMALA AND BELIZE TO SUBMIT GUATEMALA’S TERRITORIAL, INSULAR AND MARITIME CLAIM TO THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE. By Gustavo Adolfo Orellana Portillo To the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Guatemala, especially the Belize Commission. To my parents Oscar Rigoberto Orellana Cordón (+) Octavila Portillo Chacón de Orellana (+) To my wife Lilián Lisseth Lacs Palomo de Orellana To my children Oscar Gustavo and Laura Paulina PROLOGUE On December 8, 2008, the Special Agreement between Guatemala and Belize to submit Guatemala’s territorial, insular and maritime differendum to the International Court of Justice was […]


Shadow players: ecotourism development, corruption and state politics in Belize

As published: Third World Quarterly, Vol 21, No 3, pp 549–565, 2000 by Rosaleen Duffy Rosaleen Duffy is at the Department of Politics and International Relations, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YL, UK. Abstract This article examines the way that developing societies have been increasingly incorporated into global networks, and the effect that this has had on the states themselves. The notion of a shadow state is used here to inform the ways that the state has been modified by the global networks represented by ecotourism development on the one hand and drug trafficking (and associated offshore banking sectors) on the […]


Prime Minister’s Address the Belize Chamber of Commerce & Industry

April 27, 2017 Thank you for inviting me to share my sense of the business climate, the macro economy, and a few of my Administration’s actions and plans for sustaining and broadening Belize’s economic expansion. To some extent, a degree often underestimated, both government and the private sector grapple with conditions that are uncontrollable, or at least unpredictable. For example, at the start of our tenure nine years ago, the Great Recession and the unusual oil price spike that wobbled the global economy, especially small economies in the American orbit such as Belize, was surely not something we had bargained […]


Original Chaguaramas Treaty

Original Treaty Establishing the Caribbean Community and Common Market signed at Chaguaramas Chaguaramas, 4th July 1973 (This is the Official Text of the Treaty, the Final Act and the Agreement establishing the Common External Tariff) PREAMBLE The Governments of the contracting States, Determined to consolidate and strengthen the bonds which have historically existed among their peoples; Sharing a common determination to fulfil the hopes and aspirations of their peoples for full employment and improved standards of work and living; Conscious that these objectives can most rapidly be attained by the optimum utilisation of available human and natural resources of the […]


Debt – America and the World – Economic collapse

University of Groningen EPISODE 1: Debt, a great invention is the first episode of a video lecture by Dirk Bezemer from the University of Groningen. It covers how debt and money systems developed over the years into the financial system we have today. All modern money is debt created by banks and this system has and can potentially bring us great wealth. EPISODE 2: How bubbles grow is the second episode of a video lecture by Dirk Bezemer from the University of Groningen. It covers how debt and money can be created by banks for both productive and non-productive purposes. […]


As the World Sleeps Belize keeps getting destroyed, terrorized and invaded

As the world sleeps, Belize is being systematically destroyed and invaded both from within and without. For decades Guatemala has remained head strong claiming that it owns Belize despite the world noting that Belize is an independent nation and it’s people have full rights to independence. At the African, Caribbean and Pacific States and the European Community (ACP-EU) meeting in Abuja Nigeria on March 2000 the following was noted: United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 35/20 of 11 November 1980, which reaffirmed the inalienable right of the people of Belize to self-determination, independence and territorial integrity and called on all […]


New British Defence Attaché strengthens the UK’s defence relationship with the Guatemalan army

This is who we are looking at to defend Belize. Well, sorry to burst your bubble people, they are in bed with the enemy. From:British Embassy Guatemala City First published:18 April 2016 Part of:Guatemala Colonel David Strawbridge MBE, a serving officer in the British Army, paid a three day visit to Guatemala to initiate his new role as the UK’s Defence Attaché to Guatemala. He assumes the role with over 34 years of military experience including time spent in operational theatres such as Northern Ireland, Kosovo and Iraq as well as peacekeeping in Africa. During this initial visit, Colonel Strawbridge […]


The struggle for Maya land, oil, and gold

by Robin Llewellyn 11 July 2012 After two very recent attacks on Maya community leaders in Guatemala, the challenges faced by the lawyers applying domestic law and international indigenous rights legislation to these conflicts are revealing, as legal concepts are reinterpreted by governments in indigenous communities across the Maya region of Central America. On the night of 12 June two men broke into the home of José Tavico Tzunun in Santa Cruz del Qiché, Western Guatemala, and murdered him. Tzunun was a member of the K’iche’ Peoples Council in Defense of Life, Mother Nature, Earth, and Indigenous Territory. He helped […]


OAS to Host Forum on Migration and Development in the Americas

May 5, 2016 The Organization of American States (OAS) will hold this Friday, May 6 the Forum “Migration and Development in the Americas: towards the implementation of the 2030 Agenda” with the participation of foreign ministers, experts and senior officials working on the issue in the hemisphere. The inaugural session will feature the participation of the Vice President and Foreign Minister of Panama, Isabel De Saint Malo de Alvarado; the OAS Secretary General, Luis Almagro; the Executive Director of the Young American Business Trust (YABT), Valerie Lorena and the President of the Committee on Migration Issues (CAM), Daniel Cámara. WHAT: […]