History


Slavery in British Honduras 1794-1838

Source: U.S. Library of Congress Cutting logwood was a simple, small-scale operation, but the settlers imported slaves to help with the work. Slavery in the settlement was associated with the extraction of timber, first logwood and then mahogany, as treaties forbade the production of plantation crops. This difference in economic function gave rise to variations in the organization, conditions, and treatment of slaves. The earliest reference to African slaves in the British settlement appeared in a 1724 Spanish missionary’s account, which stated that the British recently had been importing them from Jamaica and Bermuda. A century later, the total slave […]


Colonial Education: A History of Education in Belize

By Karla Lewis (Educational Policy Studies University of Illinois at Urbana – Champaign) Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 24-28, 2000) ABSTRACT This paper discusses the education in Belize (formerly known as British Honduras) during the colonial era and the lasting impact of the educational foundation of the country. The paper examines the influence the British colonial educational system continues to have in. Belize, 20 years after independence. It gives an overview of the history of primary and secondary education in Belize. Although education existed in Belize well before the […]


From resistance to rebellion

Asian and Afro-Caribbean struggles in Britain This article is taken from the author’s book, Race, Class and the State, to be published next spring by Pluto Press. Copyright © 2015 by Institute of Race Relations On 25 June 1940 Udham Singh was hanged. At a meeting of the Royal Asiatic Society and the East India Association at Caxton Hall, Lon- don, he had shot dead Sir Michael O’Dwyer, who (as the Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab) had presided over the massacre of unarmed peasants and workers at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, in 1919. Udham was a skilled electrician, an active trade […]


The War On Democracy

A few years ago George W. Bush stated “America will not impose our own style of living on the unwilling. Out goal instead is to help others to find their own voice, attain their own freedom, and make their own way”. Nevertheless the United States’ actions in Latin America are proof that exactly the opposite is true. This film by John Pilger is about the struggle of people to free themselves from a modern form of slavery. It describes how those with next to nothing show extraordinary strength and courage defending the most basic of human rights in a war […]


Garifuna organizations worldwide organize to deal with discrimination

GARIFUNA ORGANIZATIONS IN BELIZE AND WORLDWIDE ARE NETWORKING TO DEVISE A PLAN TO DEAL WITH DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THEIR PEOPLE By: Wellington C. Ramos Ever since it was reported that there was discrimination taking place against Ms. Uwahnie Martinez an employee of First Caribbean Bank International for speaking her Garifuna language, the Garifuna people in Belize and in the diaspora have been outraged. Why? Because in the countries of; “Yurumein” now known as Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala and Belize there has always been a history of racism and human rights violations against their people up to this […]


Occasional Discourse on the Nigger Question (Historical Documentary) 3

Thomas Carlyle 1853 Introduction This documentary by the BBC looks at Scientific Racism, invented during the 19th century, an ideology that drew on now discredited practices such as phrenology and provided an ideological justification for racism and slavery. These theories ultimately led to eugenics and racial policies of the “master” race. Herbert Spencer, the father of Social Darwinism as an ethical theory, was thinking in terms of elitist, “might makes right” sorts of views long before Darwin published his theory. However, Spencer quickly adapted Darwinian ideas to his own ethical theories. The concept of adaptation allowed him to claim that […]


Webster Proposal

Negotiations between the United Kingdom and Guatemala in search of a solution to Guatemala’s claim to Belize were bilateral negotiations until 1962. It was a significant historical moment because in that year delegates from Belize were permitted for the first time to participate in the Anglo-Guatemalan negotiations which took place in San Juan, Puerto Rico with the U.K. and Guatemala as principals. Belize had not yet achieved self-government and so the delegates were members of the Executive Council which comprised Hon. George Price, who later became Prime Minister of Belize, Mr. Albert Cattouse and Hon. Louis Sylvestre, along with Hon. […]


Belize Guatemala Dispute

The Belizean-Guatemalan territorial dispute is an unresolved bi-national territorial dispute between the states of Belize and Guatemala, neighbors in Central America. Belize or Belizean-controlled territory has been claimed in whole or in part by Guatemala since 1940. Early colonial era The present dispute originates with imperial Spain’s claim to all “New World” territories west of the line established in the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494. England, like other emerging powers of the late 15th century, did not recognize the treaty that divided the world between Spain and Portugal. After the native Mayans had ejected Spanish conquistadors and missionaries from Tipu and surrounding […]