Articles


The London Convention 1786

CONVENCION Concluida en Londres el 14 de Julio de 1786, entre su majestad católica y el rey de la Gran Bretaña, pare explicar, aplicar y hacer efectivo lo estipulado en el articulo 60. del tratado definitivo de paz del ano de 1786. Tomando del libro “Belice”, por el doctor Francisco Astur. Segunda Edición . Publicado en Guatemala en Junio de 1941 Los reyes de España y de Inglaterra, animados de igual deseo de afirmar por cuantos medios pueden la amistad que felizmente subsiste entre ambos y sus reinos; y deseando de común acuerdo precaver hasta la sombra de desavenencia que […]


Treaty of Paris 1763

The definitive Treaty of Peace and Friendship between his Britannick Majesty, the Most Christian King, and the King of Spain. Concluded at Paris the 10th day of February, 1763. To which the King of Portugal acceded on the same day. In the Name of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. So be it. Be it known to all those whom it shall, or may, in any manner, belong, It has pleased the Most High to diffuse the spirit of union and concord among the Princes, whose divisions had spread troubles in the four parts of […]


Delimitation of Maritime Boundaries Within CARICOM

Development of Relevant Rules for Delimitation of Maritime Boundaries, Including Practical Illustrations of the Operations of such Rules. Introduction 1. The development of the principles of international law with respect to maritime boundaries delimitation currently relate to mainly six areas, namely, internal waters, territorial sea, archipelagic waters, exclusive economic zone (EEZ), continental shelf and the extended continental shelf. Other areas of delimitation, which are sometimes met with are historic waters, contiguous zones and areas of joint development by neighbouring States. The focus of this report will be the maritime zones most often come under consideration for delimitation by and between […]


Slavery in British Honduras 1794-1838

Source: U.S. Library of Congress Cutting logwood was a simple, small-scale operation, but the settlers imported slaves to help with the work. Slavery in the settlement was associated with the extraction of timber, first logwood and then mahogany, as treaties forbade the production of plantation crops. This difference in economic function gave rise to variations in the organization, conditions, and treatment of slaves. The earliest reference to African slaves in the British settlement appeared in a 1724 Spanish missionary’s account, which stated that the British recently had been importing them from Jamaica and Bermuda. A century later, the total slave […]


Belize Sustainable Development Review 2017

Belize National Sustainable Development Report Ministry of Forestry, Fisheries, and Sustainable Development, Belize United Nations Department of Social and Economic Affairs (UNDESA) United Nations Development Program (UNDP) List of Acronyms CARICOM – Caribbean Community CBD – Convention on Biological Diversity CDB – Caribbean Development Bank CHM – Clearing House Mechanism CI – Conservation International CoP – Conference of the Parties (to the CBD) DOE – Department of the Environment EEZ – Exclusive Economic Zoning EIA – Environmental Impact Assessment GEF – Global Environment Facility GMO – Genetically Modified Organisms GOB – Government of Belize IDB – Inter – American Development […]


A Crisis in Guatemala, Abetted by the U.N.

In the struggle to defeat transnational crime in Central America, the U.S. is financing a United Nations prosecutorial body in Guatemala. Yet these U.N. prosecutors are thumbing their noses at the rule of law and seem to be using their power to politicize the Guatemalan judiciary. This is dividing and destabilizing a pivotal democracy in the region. The fragile Guatemalan state is in the crosshairs of Venezuelan dictator Nicolás Maduro and Cuba’s Gen. Raúl Castro. If their allies seize control of Mexico’s southern neighbor via its institutions, as Daniel Ortega has done in Nicaragua, it will have implications for Mexican […]


1977 Report on Uranium in Belize

Trying to see if there are any more recent reports on scans done with newer technologies, will do another post IF I find anything. IUREP N.P.S. No. 39 August 1977 Distr. LIMITED Original: ENGLISH International Atomic Energy Agency   INTERNATIONAL URANIUM RESOURCES EVALUATION PROJECT IUREP NATIONAL PAVOURABILITY STUDIES BELIZE (FORMER BRITISH HONDURAS) 1. INTRODUCTION (a) Geography Belize is a well-forested area of 22,960 square kilometers. Its capital is Belmopan. The country is generally flat north of the capital city. The flat, swampy Caribbean Coast of Belize gradually ascends to the low peaks of the Maya and Cockscomb Mountains (elevation to […]


Tegucigalpa Protocol

[TRANSLATION — TRADUCTION] TEGUCIGALPA PROTOCOL(1)Came into force on 23 July 1992, i.e., eight days after the date on which the majority of the signatory States to the above-mentioned Charter had deposited their instrument of ratification with the Government of El Salvador, in accordance with article 36: TO THE CHARTER OF THE ORGANIZATION OF CENTRAL AMERICAN STATES (ODECA)(4)See p. 382 of this volume. The Presidents of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama: Whereas: It is necessary to revise the legal framework of the Organization of Central American States (OCAS), adapting it to current realities and needs, in order […]


Is the ICJ Biased?

by Eric A. Posner and Miguel F. P. de Figueiredo ERIC A. POSNER is Kirkland and Ellis Professor of Law, University of Chicago. MIGUEL F. P. DE FIGUEIREDO is a Ph.D. student in political science at the University of California at Berkeley. We thank Fay Booker, Jacob Cogan, Sean Farhang, Andrew Guzman, Larry Helfer, Richard Hynes, Matt Jarvis, Anup Malani, Andrew Martin, Simeon Nichter, Abdul Noury, Keith Smith, Duncan Snidal, Laura Stoker, Erik Voeten, Greg Wawro, John Yoo; participants at seminars at the University of Chicago, Washington University in St. Louis, Columbia University, and the University of California, Berkeley, Law […]


Belize Restoring Its Damaged Ocean

By Tik Root – Originally published on April 11, 2018 on National Geographic The Astrum helicopter company launches from a base less than five miles from where Belize City meets the Caribbean. In the backseat, to my left, is Belizean Senator Valerie Woods. Across from us are two representatives from international ocean protection organization Oceana, which organized the flight. The country’s minister of state, Carla Barnett, climbs into the front seat. “I haven’t been in a helicopter for a long time,” she mutters, pulling on her headset. The doors shut, and we’re off. As we rise above the trees, Belize […]


Noise Abatement in Belize

NOISE ABATEMENT Unreasonable noise emissions on premises. 37. (1) A person who on any premises uses or causes or allows to be used any equipment in such a way as to cause or allow it to emit unreasonable noise from those premises commits an offence. (2) A prosecution for an alleged offence under subregulation (1) may be instituted only by – (a) any three or more persons, each of whom is the occupier of the premises and claims to be directly affected by that alleged offence; (b) an authorized person; or (c) a police officer. Installation of equipment emitting unreasonable […]


Background and Study of the Special Agreement to the ICJ

BACKGROUND AND STUDY OF THE SPECIAL AGREEMENT BETWEEN GUATEMALA AND BELIZE TO SUBMIT GUATEMALA’S TERRITORIAL, INSULAR AND MARITIME CLAIM TO THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE. By Gustavo Adolfo Orellana Portillo To the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Guatemala, especially the Belize Commission. To my parents Oscar Rigoberto Orellana Cordón (+) Octavila Portillo Chacón de Orellana (+) To my wife Lilián Lisseth Lacs Palomo de Orellana To my children Oscar Gustavo and Laura Paulina PROLOGUE On December 8, 2008, the Special Agreement between Guatemala and Belize to submit Guatemala’s territorial, insular and maritime differendum to the International Court of Justice was […]